MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND LANDS FISHERIES DIVISION
Overview of Jamaica’s Fisheries sector
Fisheries have provided the means of livelihood for thousands of Jamaicans for many years, and contribute significantly to economic growth. With this in muind, Government has supported the local fishing industry through a number of initiatives over the years, spearheaded by the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, under the aegis of the Fisheries Act (1976).
Importance of Fisheries
Income and Output. In 2003 the Fishing Industry in Jamaica contributed $ 1,113.9 million to the Gross Domestic Product. Total exports amounted to 1,363,693 kg, valued at US$ 11.4 million in 2001 and accounted for 8 per cent of all Agricultural exports. The significant expansion in exports of fish in the 1997-2000 period was attributable to the growth of the lobster and conch exports, as well as the expansion of fish farms.
Employment impact: Fisheries industry contributes to the direct and indirect employment of over 40,000 persons and contributes to the local economy of many fishing communities, and makes and indirect contribution to the livelihoods of over 200,000.
Food security: Fisheries currently play an important part in food security, and given the existing resources, have the potential to increase their role in ensuring the availability of nutritious, affordable and accessible source of food. Capture fisheries and aquaculture contribute to the overall supply of fish and fish products, with domestic production currently accounting for about 20 per cent of supply. Per capita consumption of fish is approximately 19.6 kg per annum, but the potential exists to expand both marine capture fisheries and aquaculture in order to meet local demand for fish as food.
Social Impact: The social impact of the Jamaican fishing industry is particularly evident in the fishing communities, which are mainly rural, and which have fairly high rates of poverty.
Fiscal impact: Public Expenditure on fisheries industry is currently inadequate to meet development needs, and expansion of revenue is imperative if fisheries policy is to be effectively implemented. An efficient fisheries industry can however become an important source of revenue, in addition to meeting a large part of its costs of operation.
Fisheries resources in Jamaica consist mainly of Marine capture fisheries and Aquaculture. Inland fisheries resources are considered negligible. There is also a marketing system for fresh fish (marine and aquaculture) and imported fish products (salted and frozen products).
The marine fishery resources include those within the territorial sea and archipelagic waters - approximately 12,000 square kilometers and include the Morant Bank and most of Pedro Bank; those within Jamaica’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covering an estimated area of 274,000 square kilometers; and fisheries in International Waters. Between 1996 and 2001 the total fisheries production ranged between 9,000 and 14,000 tonnes, increased landings being attributed to improved fishing technology and the increase in the number of fishing boats.
Available fish stocks within the inshore fisheries are considered inadequate to support a viable fishing industry. However, there are opportunities for increasing the production of national fishing industry within the EEZ, subject to its more effective regulation.
Aquaculture has expanded over the years, with the potential for further expansion to double or triple its present size, subject to the provision of adequate water supplies.
The Jamaican Fishing industry
The Jamaican fishing industry has been the beneficiary of several Government programmes designed to promote its growth and development since 1949, when the Fisheries Division, then a sub-division of the Forestry Department, of the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, was established.
In terms of location of fisheries or fishing grounds, the industry can at present be divided into three main operational areas: -The Inshore (coastal) fishery, the Offshore (deep-sea) fishery, the Cays fishery and Pond Fish Culture. Harvesting methods include Marine Capture Fisheries (Industrial, artisanal, subsistence, recreational, sports) and Aquaculture.
The Fishing industry in Jamaica is comprised of five categories of operators: Industrial Fisheries, Offshore Artisanal, Mainland Artisanal, Inland Aquaculture and Sports fisheries. Industrial Fisheries operate vessels with a mean size of 23m in the Pedro Bank, harvesting fish lobster and conch from depths up to 25m.Offshore Artisanal fishers based on offshore cays. Mainland Artisanal fishers operate small open hull canoes along the south shelf. Inland Aquaculture are mainly large commercial farms with fish ponds of ten hectares (five acres) or more. Sports Fishers engage mainly in recreational and or seasonal sports fishing.
The most economically important species harvested are: conch, shelf and reef fish, pelagics, conch, lobster and shrimp. Conch. Since 1987, there has been a rapid expansion in the conch fishery on the Pedro Banks, due primarily to the entry into the fishery of several semi-industrial type conch-fishing vessels. Shrimp. The Jamaican shrimp fishery is an artisanal one, consisting of food and bait fisheries utilizing fifty-two fishing grounds. Most of the shrimp caught is marketed locally.
Annual catches of marine fish harvested on the Shallow Shelf from 1986-1991 show a downward trend as severe fishing pressures have resulted in the reduction of several families of reef fish. Deep Slope Fishes. Catches on the deep slope represent less than 10 percent of the total annual catch of marine fishes. Coastal Pelagics. The near-shore or coastal pelagics fishery of Jamaica (of which the primary target fish is the Opisthonema oglinum (Atlantic Thread Herring, or “sprat”) has evolved into one of great importance, with the catch of coastal pelagics increasing as more fishers switch to gillnets in nearshore areas in response to declining reef stock. The coastal pelagic fishery under which the thread herring falls is an open access fishery with little or no management /conservation measures in place. Larger Pelagic fishes represent an unknown proportion of the annual catch of marine finfish.
The Spiny lobster fishery is the second most important fishery (export earnings) in Jamaica. The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is widely distributed in the coastal waters and on the offshore banks around Jamaica with Lobster found on the Pedro Banks accounting for approximately 60% of the total landings from the fishery. The spiny lobster fishery is now under pressure and is managed using closed seasons, minimum size regulations, gear restrictions and the prohibition of the taking of berried lobsters and moulting lobsters.Shrimp and prawns. Shrimp ventures have concentrated. on imported Penaeus vannamei (white shrimp). Prawn culture is based on the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and Cherax quadricarinatus (redclaw crayfish). Tilapia presently comprises 95% of Jamaica’s aquaculture production.
Fisheries and Sustainable Development
Fisheries represent a key renewable natural resource and provides a source of livelihood for thousands of Jamaicans as well as a source of export earnings. As such, the development and effective management of the country’s fisheries can play an important role in Jamaica’s sustainable growth and development.
The economic environment of the fisheries industries is increasingly affected by global developments relating to management of fishing resources to ensure sustainability, and this has an impact on the viability of individual segments of the global industry whether in terms of countries or particular species and production methods.
Depletion of fish stocks has been seen as a major issue for the local fisheries industry for many years, particularly in relation to near-shore or reef fisheries. The depletion of near-shore fish stocks has led to more stringent regulation, but given the high degree of pressure from artisanal fishers with limited alternative means of livelihood, efforts at regulation are extremely costly. The depletion of domestic fish stocks has the consequence of increased dependence on imported food fish, unless the food fish deficits can be significantly reduced, if not eliminated, by corresponding increases in aquaculture products.
Management of the Environment and the activities of the fisheries industry are two interrelated dimensions of the protection of the sustainability of the ecosystem.The imperative of sustainability requires the strict enforcement of environmental controls with regard to reef fishing and various destructive fishing practices, resulting in the doubtful viability of the artisanal segment. However, with due cognizance of the important social role of this segment, particularly in employment generation and poverty alleviation, solutions will need to be found – inside and outside the fisheries industries itself to address the problems of securing the long-term livelihood of fishers.
While the increasing size of the market for fish and fish products means increased possibilities for fisheries industries, increased attention to the environment, resulting in growing pressure for a strict application of the precautionary approach to all interventions. Aquaculture will increase in importance as a source of food fish. These prospects have clear implications for the development of Jamaican fisheries.
The changing environment of Jamaican fisheries: key issues and Problems
In recent years, the fishing industry has experienced a severe crisis as a result of overfishing, loss of habitats and biodiversity, increased costs of production and illegal practices.
Reduced production and increasing demand have meant that the country has come to rely increasingly on imports to provide for the needs of the population for fish and fish products as a source of food.
At the same time, the country faces serious problems of maintaining economic growth, reducing unemployment and poverty and safeguarding food safety and security.
International; developments that have had a major impact include:
Against this background, an updated and sustainable policy for the development of the Jamaican fishing industry has become a major national priority.
In order to be sustainable this policy must be consistent with accepted principles of sustainable development, such as an “ecosystem approach”, and must, furthermore be closely coordinated with related policies for national development, such as environmental, economic and social development policies.
The objectives of fisheries policy
The main goals of the National Fisheries Policy are:
employment in fisheries and related activities (3) Contribute to the provision of Food security
Its immediate objectives are:
The National Fisheries Policy provides a framework for the formulation of strategies designed to address the important issues and challenges and opportunities facing the industry, including: globalization, trade expansion, economic efficiency, industry structure and governance, and food safety and quality.
Globalisation of seafood trade. The economic environment of the fisheries industries is increasingly affected by global developments relating to management of fishing resources to ensure sustainability. the global fishing environment is becoming more and more subject to regulation, in contrast to the traditional situation, which permitted a more uninhibited access to global fisheries resources. Other related issues which are seen as of importance in the global fisheries trade includ safety of fishers, fish quality and safety, property rights and fisheries management, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, sustainable development of marine capture fisheries, genetically modified organisms and
fisheries and ecolabelling in fisheries management. The development of the Jamaican fisheries industry will need to consider the impacts of this environment.
Trade expansion increased demand for seafood resulting in an increased trading possibilities for both marine capture fisheries and the aquaculture industry. Thestablishment of niche markets for Jamaican conch and lobster is a step in the right direction. As a result of the above trends in consumption, international trade will grow - possibly more rapidly in value than in volume terms. In developing countries, fish processing for developed markets will become a very attractive employment-generating opportunity for governments that need to find alternative employment opportunities, particularly for displaced artisanal fishers and their families. Developing countries will also become increasingly important markets for fish.
Trade liberalization has an impact on the role of imports of fish and fish products in the local economy. Against the background of the high production costs of domestic fisheries, especially artisanal fisheries, and given increasing consumer demand, imported fish may be expected to capture an increasing share of the domestic market. Developments such as the WTO trade regime, FTAA and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) are therefore quite significant. In the long term, deriving advantages from trade liberalization will require expansion and development of local industrial fisheries which operate on a scale which will make export production viable and more effective maintenance of domestic market share more effective, based on more competitive production.
Efficiency. The increased efficiency of fisheries is critical to the industry’s ability to develop in a sustainable way. This will require measures to address increasing commercial costs and to secure additional revenues, as well as measures that increase maximum sustainable yields in the long run. This underscores the need for an ecosystem based fisheries management.
Food safety and quality. Policies and measures to ensure food safety and quality are essential, not only to safeguard national food security, but also to ensure increased and continued access to global markets which have become increasingly regulated.
2.1 Fisheries Policy is guided by certain principles that are enshrined in relevant laws and regulations, and which form the basis of the management practices of the fisheries authorities. In order to ensure a sustainable fishing industry, these principles and the relevant legal instruments that codify them as well as the policies and strategies for managing the fisheries resources of the nation must be relevant to the current challenges facing the fishing industry – nationally, regionally and globally – and must be consistent with international best practice. In this regard, the Jamaican Fisheries Act, relevant national sectoral development strategies and international conventions and treaty obligations should be taken into account.
188.8.131.52 The National Industrial Policy (1996) recognises Agriculture and Food Processing as one of the strategic clusters, while the Agricultural Development Strategy (2004) provides for the development and expansion of fisheries and aquaculture as key strategies to stimulate economic growth, promote rural development, contribute to food security and alleviate poverty.
184.108.40.206 Within the context of a Sustainable National Development Strategy, policies for the protection and preservation of the environment and the safeguarding biodiversity are expected to impact positively on the increased productivity of national fisheries through improvement of habitats and better management of fish stocks. In this regard, regional and international initiatives in the fishing industry play an important supporting role.
2.1.3 International conventions. Jamaica is signatory to a number of international and regional conventions and treaties relating to the management of fisheries resources. The National Fisheries policy aims to be compliant with these arrangements in order to ensure that Jamaica can participate equitably with other nations in the global fishing industry and benefit from international and regional initiatives aimed at improving fisheries management and the overall efficiency and sustainability of the industry.
220.127.116.11 UNCLOS. Jamaica acceded to the 1982 UNCLOS agreement in March 1983. This agreement provides a comprehensive, enforceable international environmental law, covering all forms of marine pollution (land-based, atmospheric, ship-borne, and originating from activities on the sea-bed). It establishes a framework for cooperation on conservation and management of marine living resources on the high seas and serves as an umbrella for numerous existing international agreements covering the oceans, including international fisheries agreements and regional initiatives.
18.104.22.168 Cartagena Convention. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, was finalized and adopted in 2000. Its objective is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, especially where transboundary movements are involved. Ensure access to the benefits of biotechnology while minimizing the possible risks to the environment and to human health.
22.214.171.124 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The Code of Conduct is a collection of principles, goals and elements for action representing a global consensus or agreement on a wide range of fisheries and aquaculture issues. It stresses that countries and all those involved in fisheries and aquaculture should work together to conserve and manage fish resources and their habitats. Fishing operations and policies should be designed with a view to achieving long-term sustainable use of fish resources as a means of assuring resoure conservation, continued food supplies and alleviating poverty in fishing communities.
126.96.36.199 CRFM. The Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) took over from the CARICOM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Program (CFRAMP) as one response of regional governments faced with serious over -fishing and habitat degradation in the inshore fisheries of the region. Its mandate sought to ensure that the strengthening and enhancing the capacity of national fisher folk organizations to become co-managers of the region’s fisheries resources and to ensure that organized resource users in all the participating countries are effectively and democratically represented on the National Fisheries Advisory Committees.
3.1 In order to ensure that the fisheries industry will realized its potential to contribute to sustainable development, fisheries policy must be fully integrated with other strategic initiatives for national development, be ecologically sustainable, promote greater efficiency and improved competitiveness of national fisheries enterprises, ensure improved management of fish stocks, provide for effective partnerships between the major stakeholders of the industry, ensure effective enforcement and compliance with industry regulatory standards and consistency with international commitments, improve educational standards among the community of fishers, support continuous research and development, and achieve cost recovery for the services provided to the industry. The Fisheries Policy must also address the issues of Poverty, Human Development and gender equity and provide an appropriate legal framework to support all initiatives.
3.2 Integrating fisheries policy with other strategic initiatives 3.2.1 A National Fisheries Development Plan.
3.3 Ecologically sustainable development
3.3.1 Sustainable fisheries. the existing and proposed measures to limit the further entry of artisanal fishers into the industry and to encourage exit are necessary. However the policies in order to be effective must be also efficient. The costs of enforcement may be as high as the costs of non- enforcement. This means that appropriate incentives must be put in place to facilitate the exit of artisanal fishers from the industry including provision of alternative means of employment. The reduction of the artisanal fisheries should not therefore be seen outside the context of the expansion and development of the fisheries industry in general, taking into consideration the underexploited resources
3.4 Improved management of fisheries
The strategies will target Capture Fisheries and Aquaculture, and will include:
188.8.131.52 Marine Capture Fisheries
184.108.40.206.1 Objectives/Strategies for Zones 1 and 2
To reduce fishing effort by stopping new entrants until stocks have recovered sufficiently. This may take 15 years;
To divert activities of existing fishermen now fishing in Zones 1 and 2 to fishing activities in Zone 3 or to other activities, including aquaculture and tourism.
To involve of all stakeholders in the fisheries management process, including monitoring, surveillance, control and data collection;
To reduce costs of fishing operations by using lobster and fish concentrating devices, such as casitas and artificial reefs.
To effect improvements in existing fisheries for resources that appear to be under-exploited (e.g. peneid shrimp).
220.127.116.11.2 Objectives/Strategies for Zones 3 and 4
• To expand fishing in these zones, which are considered to be lightly exploited, if possible by diverting activities of existing fishermen in Zones 1 and 2 to fishing activities in Zone 3; • To start new, or improve existing fisheries for resources that appear to be under-exploited ( e.g. tunas and tuna-like fishes, sharks);
• To reduce risks and costs of fishing operations by introducing larger vessels with inboard engines; • To secure involvement of all stakeholders in the fisheries management process, including monitoring, surveillance, control and data collection;
• To extract appropriate rents from the licensing of foreign vessels wishing to fish in Zone 3; • To promote improved handling and marketing of fish caught in these zones.
18.104.22.168 Objectives/Strategies for Capture Fisheries in Inland Waters
• To conduct an assessment of inland fisheries resources, and determination of possibilities for improvement.
4. Coordinate activities with those of environmental organizations, e.g. NEPA.
22.214.171.124 Aquaculture. Given concerns about declining fish stocks and the rising demand for fish and fish products in the domestic market as well as globally, aquaculture is seen as a most important component in the development and management of fisheries resources. The GOJ will therefore establish, maintain and develop an appropriate legal and administrative framework that facilitates the development and management of responsible aquaculture, including an advance evaluation of the effects of aquaculture development on genetic diversity and ecosystem integrity, based on the best available scientific information.
126.96.36.199 Objectives/Strategy for Aquaculture
• To regulate and control aquaculture activities, including preventing the release of exotic species into the wild • To promote development and expansion of the culture of aquatic flora and fauna to limits dictated by marketing possibilities, including export, without damaging wetlands, lagoons, mangroves, reefs or other sensitive areas. • To improve GOJ collaboration with other stakeholders/agencies for the development of standards for both food fish and ornamental fish species.
3.5 Fisheries Governance and Institutional Development
3.5.4 Institutional Strategies
188.8.131.52 Government will ensure that the institutional capacity is in place to implement obligations under the relevant national and international instruments.
184.108.40.206 Fisheries Division
The Fisheries Division is to be converted into a semi- autonomous Authority, which will function as an Executive Agency of Government.
Government will secure improved funding for the Fisheries Division by using income from registration and license fees to be used for fisheries management and research activities.
The capacity of the Fisheries Division will be enhanced through training, recruitment of staff in new disciplines, investments in equipment (including provision of access to a research vessel) and improved physical facilities.
Training needs analyses will be conducted in order to identify gaps in the training and education of persons involved in the sector, and appropriate training programmes will be implemented to address these gaps.
220.127.116.11 involvement of stakeholders in decision-making, and in order to facilitate the implementation of collaborative strategies such as co- management of fisheries resources, Government will seek to build effective and sustainable partnerships with relevant stakeholders in the fisheries sector. These include: the Private Sector, inclusive of all commercial fishing interests, industrial fishers, recreational fishers, processors and distributors; small-scale and artisanal fishers; NGOs and Community-based organizations representing communities involved in or affected by fisheries; environmental, scientific and research bodies; academia and other partners. Consultative mechanisms will include bodies such as the Fisheries Advisory Council, National Sea Safety Committee, inter-agency groups involved in environmental protection and sustainable development, etc. and MOUs will be used where applicable to formalize relevant roles.partnerships. In keeping with Government’s commitment to
18.104.22.168 Fisheries Advisory Council. A Fisheries Advisory Council and eventually other similar bodies consisting of stakeholders and decision makers to advise the Fisheries Division on important management measures such as quota for conch and numbers of licenses for conch and lobster fisheries, aquaculture development etc.
22.214.171.124 Memoranda of understanding particular those involved in the implementation of management measures for all marine areas, including marine parks and protected areas, and those involved in applied and academic marine and fisheries research.MOUs).MOUs will be established with other institutions, in
126.96.36.199 NGO Management in Fisheries: In conjunction with the organizational strengthening of the fishing cooperatives, attempts will be made to give them a role in the management of fisheries resources (e.g. fishing beaches, reefs) and the change process (e.g. educating artisanal fishers about the sustainable fishing and alternative livelihoods). The forestry model is to be carefully studied for best practices and lessons learned. This initiative should also be developed as a pilot project targeted to specific fishing communities.
188.8.131.52 Capacity building. The development of the ability of the Fishing Cooperatives to provide commercial services to fishermen as well as to serve as facilitators in the process of upgrading will require a significant effort to increase the capacities of these organizations. Measures will be introduced to improve the organizational capacity of NGOs involved with the Artisanal Fishers, to enable them to spearhead programmes for upgrading of artisanal fisheries, and facilitating their transition into industrial fisheries.
3.6 Research and Development
3.6.1 The available data on the Jamaican fishing industry are inadequate and should be improved by the establishment of an ongoing data collection, storage and dissemination programme, strengthening the current efforts of the Fisheries Division, especially as relates to national fisheries resources.
3.6.2 The policy of the GOJ is to enhance the capacity of public and private institutions to contribute to general marine science, to improve data collection and encourage research on all aspects of fisheries, and to provide education at all levels in all fisheries matters, so as to contribute to the sustainable development of the fisheries sector and enhance its contribution to national life.
3.7 Monitoring Control and Surveillance
• To establish and maintain a complete register of all vessels and fishers and of aquaculture facilities and aquaculturists.
The policy of the GOJ is to make sure that its laws, rules and regulations applicable to fisheries are adhered to, and to do this at a level of costs that is commensurate with its income fro licensing fishing and aquaculture activities and fines.
To fully enforce the Fisheries Act and Regulations and other applicable instruments of law through actions of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance effected by different agencies, including the Coast Guard, Marine Police, The Fisheries Division, game and park wardens and through direct involvement of fishermen and aquaculturists in co-management.
Control of access by Jamaican vessels to the four maritime zones:
will implement agreed measures adopted in the framework of such organizations or arrangements and consistent with international law to deter the activities of vessels flying the flag of non-members or non-participant countries where such vessels engage in activities that undermine the effectiveness of conservation and management measures established by the abovementioned organizations and arrangements.
3. Monitoring, control and surveillance of aquaculture activities and inland fisheries:
3.8 Safety standards
• To reduce the high number of fishermen lost at sea, and to reduce the high costs of search and rescue operations.
1. The GOJ will establish mandatory standards for safety a sea and implement measures to ensure that all vessels and fishermen operating on the Banks must strictly comply with the relevant regulations. Controls will be increased and stronger measures taken to enforce compliance.
2. All seagoing vessels in all zones should carry a simple radar reflector as described on page 12 of FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries No.1, 1996.
3. GOJ will work in close collaboration with fishers’ cooperatives and other organizations to implement measures to reduce the cost and increase the availability of safety equipment and safe vessels to small-scale and artisanal fishers as far as possible.
4. The GOJ will provide basic training in navigation, safety measures and safe diving practices to all fishermen. Completion of basic training will become a condition of the issuance of fishing licences, with appropriate standards applied to the minimum safety requirements for the relevant fishing zone (e.g. Zones 2, 3 and 4 will require a higher standard of safety knowledge for entrants).
5. The GOJ will investigate possibilities for the provision of life insurance for all licensed fishermen, working in collaboration with the fishers’ cooperatives and other organizations. Such insurance schemes will be closely linked with strict enforcement of safety regulations and safety equipment.
6. The GOJ will take such measures as will ensure that relevant weather information, e.g. weather bulletins, storm and hurricane warnings are available and widely disseminated among fishermen. Fishermen should ensure that monitoring such information becomes a regular routine in their fishing practice.
7. The GOJ, through the Fisheries Division and other agencies and working in close collaboration with fisheries industry stakeholders, will conduct continuous public education programmes aimed at increasing awareness of sea safety issues and best practices to ensure safety at sea.
8. The GOJ will encourage the establishment of National Sea Safety Committee, an inter-agency body with participation by key stakeholders in the industry and a Safety and Security Department aimed at improving safety at sea will be established within the Fisheries Division/National Fisheries Agency.
3.9 Food Safety, Biosecurity, marine pests and fish health
• To ensure safety of fish and fishery products made available to consumers • To safeguard trade in fish and fish products by meeting all relevant international standards for hygiene, food safety and quality in the processing, marketing and international trade in fish and fishery products
• To encourage adding of value through the processing of fish and fishery products in Jamaica
1. Development of standards and Inspection. The GOJ will:
i. Set minimum standards for safety and quality assurance and ensure that these standards are effectively applied throughout the industry; the implementation of quality
standards agreed in the context of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission and other relevant organizations or arrangements will be promoted.
ii. Provide information on and training in proper handling of fish products.
iii. Enhance existing and establish new inspection systems for quality control of fish products, for local consumption as well as export.
iv. Stimulate research in fish technology and quality assurance and support projects to improve post-harvest handling of fish, taking into account the economic, social, environmental and health and nutritional impacts of such projects.
v. Set up a registration and licensing system for all those involved in the handling, processing and marketing and international trade in fish and fishery products.
2. Public Awareness: Encourage the use of fish for human consumption and promote consumption of fish whenever appropriate.
3. Aquaculture. Promote best practices in pre and post-harvest handling and management in the aquaculture sector by:
i. Developing local standards for fish farms, e.g. pre- harvest standards, in conjunction with farmers and relevant regulatory agencies and require fish farms to meet these standards before certification. Develop codes of best farming practices; develop codes of best farming practices; encourage farms to improve management practices with a view to the introduction of relevant international and local phyto-sanitary standards (e.g. HACCP).
ii. Conserving genetic diversity and maintain integrity of aquatic communities and ecosystems by appropriate management.
iii. Cooperating in the elaboration, adoption and implementation of international codes of practice and procedures for introductions and transfers of aquatic organisms in order to facilitate proper disease management and control, introduce quarantine measures on farms and at ports of entry.
iv. Encouraging adoption of appropriate practices in the genetic improvement of brood stocks, the introduction of non-native species, and in the production, sale and transport of eggs, larvae or fry, brood stock and other live materials, ion order to minimize the risk of disease and other adverse effects on wild and cultured stocks; facilitate the preparation and implementation of appropriate national codes of practice and procedures to this effect.
v. Promoting the use of appropriate procedures for the selection of brood stock and the production of eggs, larvae and fry.
vi. Promoting responsible aquaculture practices in support of rural communities, producer organizations and fish farmers.
vii. Improving selection and use of appropriate feeds, feed additives and fertilizers, including manures.
viii. Promoting effective farm and fish health management practices favouring hygienic measures and vaccines; ensure safe effective and minimal use of therapeutants, hormones and drugs, antibiotics and other disease control chemicals; set up quarantine and reporting protocols to monitor and control disease outbreaks at aquaculture facilities.
ix. Regulating the use of chemical inputs in aquaculture that are hazardous to human health and the environment.
x. Requiring that the disposal of wasters such as offal, sludge, dead or diseased fish, excess veterinary drugs and other hazardous chemical inputs does not constitute a hazard to human health and environment.
xi. Ensuring the food safety of aquaculture products and promote efforts that maintain product quality and improve their value through particular care before and during harvesting and on-site processing and in storage and transport of the products.
xii. Taking precautionary measures with respect to genetically modified organisms (GMO), which must be supported by appropriate authorization and verification by the relevant authority; the use of GMOs will be in accordance with established standards and requirements.
i. Coordinate inter-agency collaboration in order to facilitate the efficient administration of requirements and procedures for the import and export of fish products.
ii. Ensure that international and domestic trade in fish and fishery products are in accord with sound conservation and management practices through improved identification of the origin of fish and fishery products traded.
3.10 Economic and Social Development of the Fisheries Sector
1. Redeployment. The number of fishermen in Zones 1 and 2 will be reduced by not issuing licences for those zones to new entrants; encouraging fishermen to join forces and enter into fisheries in Zones 3 and 4; and supporting opportunities for alternative livelihoods and encouraging fishermen to seek these non-fishing alternatives.
2. New fisheries. Where opportunities are to be created for participation in new or expanded fisheries, licenses will preferably be issued to those fishermen who were previously operating in areas that are overfished and who have consequently been affected by restrictions and redeployment, in order to maintain sources of livelihood.
3. Alternatives livelihoods- aquaculture. The GOJ will provide land resources for establishing small fish farms (1 acre or less), training and technical inputs (e.g. fingerlings) and encourage the aquaculture/processing enterprises to contract the new fish farmers and provide technical inputs and farming materials. These “minifarms” would allow displaced artisans to make the investment, while services such as maintenance could be provided centrally by a commercial entity, which may be established by fishers’ organizations (e.g. cooperatives).The GOJ will support a pilot project in a suitable area on the South coast to promote this model, seeking funding by an appropriate international partner.
4. Shrimp fishermen. The GOJ will support the introduction of better gear and better marketing practices of shrimp fishermen operating in parts of Zone 1 in order to improve their productivity.
5. Training. GOJ will provide basic training in navigation, safety measures and safe diving practices, among other areas, to all fishermen engaged in fisheries in Zones 2, 3 and 4, such training eventually becoming an entry standard for prospective applicants for a fisheries license.
6. Support of fishers’ organizations. The formation of cooperatives and other types of associations of fishermen will be encouraged, since many development and management issues can best be dealt with through local groups. Fisheries management shall preferably be implemented in close collaboration with these fisheries stakeholders.
184.108.40.206 Improved research data collection, to establish reliable cost statistics
Costs and effort. Technical studies will be required, supported by that can form the basis of timely analysis of the costs and effort of harvesting fisheries in relative to variables including: location of fishing grounds, species, type of gear, scale of operations etc. These studies and data will form the basis of policies designed to lower the cost of producing fish and fishery products in Jamaica. Government will ensure the resources are made available to conduct the necessary research and carry out relevant analyses.
220.127.116.11 Technology. Government will support improvements in fishing technology, subject to prevailing standards and regulations and consistent with sustainable fisheries management policies, through research and development activities as well as fiscal and other incentives to facilitate the acquisition of modern equipment necessary for economic exploitation of targeted fishing resources in Zones 3 and 4. Government will also collaborate with international development partners such as the FAO, as well as bilateral and regional partners, to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge of modern fisheries management through training programmes, observation tours, internships and technical assistance consultancies.
18.104.22.168 Infrastructure. A basic infrastructure for the fisheries sector should be developed, including berthing and marketing facilities. Government will investigate the feasibility of upgrading existing facilities which are currently run down with a view to eventual divestment for the specific purpose of strengthening development of the fisheries sector.
22.214.171.124 Landing areas-Fishing beaches.
Water supply: Special attention will be given to the development of the water supply infrastructure to facilitate aquaculture. For example, the National Irrigation Authority will be approached to regularize water supplies to fish farmers in St. Catherine, and the National Irrigation Development Plan should ensure that the needs of the aquaculture sector are taken into account.
The growing domestic as well as international demands for fish products provide realistically exploitable opportunities for more intensive fishing of the EEZ. However this will be at a significant investment cost. A major precondition of any significant development is increased investments in fishing vessels and equipment as well as infrastructure, along with the relevant management systems to ensure effective and sustainable operations.
Given the economic constraints as well as considerations of policy, it is not likely or advisable that Government becomes a major investor in the development of commercial fisheries. The most appropriate and potentially fruitful contribution of the Government lies in investment promotion and facilitation complementing the provision of adequate infrastructure and administrative and regulatory management systems and research and development capabilities to support Private Sector investment.
Cost recovery and financing
1. Fiscal administration: A review of revenue base will be conducted with a view to introducing measures to increase revenues from the fishing industry, including: Cost recovery and cost sharing through increased user fees for the services provided by the Fisheries Division; levy on imported processed fish products; Ensure collection of economic rent from high-value fisheries by establishing a realistic licensing fees. Quotas auctions may be considered as a method of promoting competition and raising revenues.
2. After careful analysis, a determination will be made as to the appropriate modality for financing various services provided to the industry, e.g. cost recovery, cost sharing and subsidy (Cost recovered services- e.g. fisheries management; Cost sharing services-e.g. artisanal fisheries inputs; and Subsidized services- e.g. training, research and development).
126.96.36.199 Human development and poverty alleviation Trade policies. Government will ensure that the interests of the fisheries sector and the sustainable development of fisheries are considered in all trade negotiations, whether international, regional or bilateral.
188.8.131.52.1Human development is an integral aspect of sustainable development. Further efforts should be made to ensure the effective integration of fisheries into key national policy documents relating to human development, poverty reduction and rural development, paying particular attention to gender issues and internationally recognized fishery development instruments such as the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. .
184.108.40.206.2 Objectives/Strategy •
To reduce poverty in fishing communities and promote gender equity in the fishing industry
3.11.1 Awareness building: Measures will be implemented to increase public awareness and education about capture and culture fisheries and related issues in order to increase public support and participation in sustainable fisheries management policies.
3.11.2 Behaviour Change: The transformation of the fishing industry will require significant Behaviour Change. Adequate strategies need to be developed and resources invested to manage this complex social political and economic process. This strategy should be developed by experts in Governance and Change Management, and the Government should seek technical assistance in this area.
3.11.3 Training: Given the low levels of educational attainment among artisanal fishers, many may have difficulties in effecting a successful transition into industrial or commercial fishing in Zones 3 and 4, and may face problem with the reduction of fishing in Zones 1 and 2. Special efforts will have to be made to improve the educational standard of those who are capable, or to provide suitable training to facilitate their transition to the new fishing zones or to alternative livelihoods.